The Proliferation of the Plastic Bag…BAN
Worldwide, nearly two million single-use plastic bags are used each minute. Plastic bags are usually reported as the second-most common type of ocean litter, after cigarette butts. For every square mile of ocean, there are about 46,000 pieces of plastic floating in it and it takes approximately 1,000 years to degrade. While these figures are staggering, there seems to be more than a glimmer of hope as the number of single-use plastic bag bans is on an uptick!
A recent study from Earth Policy Institute, an independent non-profit environmental organization based in Washington D.C., reported there are 133 cities and counties around the nation have a bag regulation ordinance. And, at least two dozen countries have a ban or some sort of initiative to reduce plastic bag waste.
For the Surfrider Foundation, our work started with the San Francisco bag ban ordinance in 2007, which was the very first in the nation.
Recognizing how single-use plastics are a leading cause of beach and water pollution, the Surfrider Foundation San Francisco Chapter helped usher the 2007 ordinance that placed a ban on single-use plastic shopping bags. Since then, the city has banned bags from large supermarkets, chain pharmacies and restaurants, and has worked vigorously to uphold these regulations in court. Following the lead of the San Francisco Surfrider Chapter, several other Surfrider Foundation Chapters started advocating for similar ordinances in their communities.
The momentum to ban single-use plastic bags worked its way down the coast with a ban in Malibu in 2008, which was a precursor to Santa Monica’s ban in 2011. Across the nation, bag ban regulations are continuing to pop up in progressive communities and are taking on various forms: from 5-cent fees on single-use bags to bans on all plastic bags. And, in many cases, these bans range by the regulation of paper bags—from no regulation to ten-cent fees on paper, to a ban on both paper and plastic in major cities such as Austin, Texas (2012).
The issue has gained notoriety among lawmakers in larger cities around the nation. In January of 2010, the nation’s capitol of Washington, D.C., instituted a 5-cent charge for paper or plastic bags at all retail stores. Los Angeles County in California began a ban on plastic bags and imposed a ten-cent fee on paper bags in July 2011, the subject of failed litigation by the plastics industry. Los Angeles city passed a similar ordinance in June of 2013. Today, the law expanded to also cover single-use plastic bags at smaller convenience stores. (Photo: L.A. South Bay Surfrider Chapter Chair, Craig W. Cadwallader, taken by Joe Galliani on June 30, 2014, at L.A. Bag Ban Press Conference at City Hall. )
Further north, the city of Portland passed a ban on plastic bags after a narrowly failing statewide initiative in Oregon, which went into effect in October of 2011. The Surfrider Foundation Portland Chapter was the driving force behind the enactment of the local ordinance.
This momentum can be attributed to the mounting proof that bag bans aren’t just for show. They actually work.
A study of a bag ban ordinance in San Jose, California, showed that over 75 percent of shoppers brought their own bag or chose none at all. This cut litter by 89 percent in city storm drains, 60 percent in the creeks and rivers, and 59 percent on San Jose’s streets. For Los Angeles County’s ordinance, the resulting usage of single-use bags declined by 94 percent, including a 10 percent drop in paper bag usage.
So where does this leave us?
Currently 79 bag ban ordinances have been adopted in California, covering 108 cities and counties. That is, 1 in 3 Californians live somewhere with a plastic bag ban. Nationwide retailers have purchased less single-use bags to distribute, reducing the amount from 107 million pounds in 2008 to 62 million in 2012, according to the Earth Policy Institute.
For the fifth year in a row, there is a bag ban bill in the California state legislature. There is also a national bag fee bill that has been proposed by Virginia Congressman Jim Moran. It remains to be seen whether this issue will hit hard at the national stage, with a very divided Congress, many think that little to no environmental legislation of this type has the chance to move to the President’s desk for signing. However, this is an issue that has caught the eye of the national legislature, specifically the Senate Ocean Caucus.
While state and federal lawmakers may not have caught up with the more nimble local lawmakers in the United States, this trend of bag bans is covering more and more of the citizenry of the country, one way or another.
How you can help.
Do your part to reduce the amount of plastic bags that end up in the ocean by shopping with reusable bags, totes and market baskets. Check out our Rise Above Plastics program page to learn more about plastic pollution and how to get involved in plastic litter reductions. Here's a list of current Surfrider Foundation campaigns. If you want to be more active in the Surfrider Foundation, look no further than your local chapter.